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He admits that the House has failed and is in need of reform, and he mourns the end of the Roman Empire. On the second day of the Tribunal, Kynthia persuades the apprentices to go with her "on a trip.
With a single spell, she takes them all to Venice, which they briefly tour en route to the townhouse of a Roman covenant named Flamma Aeterna. Kynthia releases the apprentices to wander the townhouse for a few minutes and, by the time they return from their individual explorations, they and she are being pursued by Grogs.
Kynthia and the apprentices escape with an additional passenger: Pedro, a former apprentice to a Jerbiton in Constantinople, who was taken by Flambeau magi involved in the Sack. Kynthia whisks them all off to Durenmar and, while the apprentices tour the heart of the Order, Kynthia hands Pedro off to a Jerbiton magus who has arranged to be at Durenmar for precisely this purpose.
The apprentices are of mixed feeling when they discover they have helped to kidnap an apprentice, even if it was voluntary. They return to Icy North with the help of Kynthia's magic.
That evening, three magi approach the apprentices and ask to speak to them in private. The apprentices are suspicious, and Eva accuses them of being Shadow Magi, but eventually a meeting is agreed to, provided it is in an open location within the Covenant.
They meet at Profundus' garden, where the magi introduce themselves as Marcus of Bonisagus, Brigid of Flambeau, and Roderick of Tytalus. They are the filia of magi who vanished twenty-six years ago, along with all the other inhabitants of the Covenant of Terragon Vale. These magi have pressed their claim to the resources of Terragon Vale for three Tribunals now, and each time they have been refused.
The Terragon Heirs acknowledge that the apprentices all serve influential and respected magi in the Tribunal, and they ask the apprentices to try to persuade the masters of the rightness of the Heirs' cause. In exchange, they offer magical, financial, and political support to the apprentices in their own post-Gauntlet covenant.
The proposal is met with general skepticism. Some of the apprentices are sure their masters will not listen to them, regardless. Others are simply unconvinced of the Heirs' cause. The Heirs leave them to consider the plan. The Tribunal moves on to the topic of the Shadow Magi. Grigori filius Christopher scholae Bonisagi is Marched. The hedge magicians known as Caterina, Hermia, Magni and Gideon are sentenced to death. The Terragon Heirs press their case once more and, once more, they are denied.
The resources of Terragon Vale -- including books, vis sources, and the buildings of the covenant proper -- continue to be kept in trust for the day on which the magi return. A pair of Tremere magi arrive with orders to collect Breandan, who is bound for Coeris, the domus magnus of the House.
Taking his long trip in good humor, Breandan waves goodbye and says he will return. Diana returns to the Covenant of the Shadow of the Moon, alone.
Akakios approaches Athena Alpina and tells her Mircalla's story about Prima La being her former domina, who used her to spy on her fellow magi before executing her. As Sebastian, Tomas, and Akakios are preparing to return to Sinews of Knowledge, Archmage Philomena exercises her right under the Code to claim Tomas as her new apprentice.
Sebastien is outraged, but there is nothing he can do. Sinews of Knowledge Balbina is obliged to devote a season teaching Eva, and this is a serious enough demand that she abandons her lab work for the winter. However, Balbina is a poor teacher thanks to her social handicaps, and instead of one-on-one instruction, she secures the covenant's copy of De Novo , one of the Roots of the Arts, for Eva.
They spend a season reading together in the maga's sanctum; Balbina seems to be studying teaching methods. Sebastien is furious over the loss of Tomas, and Akakios does his best to persuade him to do something foolish. But Philomena is an Archmage, and Bonisagi have a long history of picking Tytalus apprentices, whom they consider to be wasted material or mistreated. Ragoneda, who often dines with Sebastien, commiserates with him on the unfairness of it all, but notes that, as the only magus in the Alps with two apprentices, this outcome should have been expected and, indeed, Philomena may have been trying to minimize the insult with this particular choice.
Sebastien spends much time in silent thought. The next day, Akakios is told to pack a bag with food and water. Sebastien dons his traveling gear and hefts his pack of tools.
The two of them pass through the Portal Arch and Akakios finds himself in an unfamiliar circular stone chamber. Sebastien explains that they are in Terragon Vale. At the recent Tribunal meeting, it was decided that the sanctums of the Terragon magi should be investigated, to seek clues to their disappearance.
While most of the covenant has been explored before now, the sanctums have remained off limits according to the Code. Now, after three such Tribunal meetings, Sebastien has been unofficially engaged to penetrate those sanctums and look for clues. This is a side of Sebastien Akakios has never before seen. He is both professional and highly competent, possessed of a bag of tricks which make him prepared for every eventuality. He dons a black face mask which allows him to see through stone walls.
He uses Creo magic to create human corpses, which he then animates to open doors and trip traps. He conjures "birds of my desire", whose eyes he can see through and whose motion he controls, to explore chambers. When traps attack him, he fast-casts defensive spells to teleport away or simply dispel the effect. He wields a spell which causes traps in a room to speak to him, narrating how they were made, what they do, and how they can be disarmed, all in the voice of the trap's original creator.
Then, from his bag, he produces wands themed to each of the Forms, which dispel the magic of that trap. Carefully and methodically, often spending several days on a single sanctum, he slowly penetrates every defense without suffering so much as a scratch or a singe. He does this for every sanctum in the covenant, over the course of a couple of weeks, collecting various lab notes and other written records to bring back to the Quaesitors.
Throughout all of this, Akakios is kept close as an observer and assistant. Sebastien narrates various facts about the wards and traps he encounters, educating Akakios on principles of Hermetic Theory mostly wards and enchanted items as well as how to notice things and avoid being noticed in turn. Akakios has much opportunity to see Hermetic magic in action, especially Rego and Vim. Terragon Vale does have an Aegis, created by the Quaesitors of the Alps, but Sebastien has been given a casting token for it.
He does not give Akakios one, making it clear that this is a test for Akakios, and if he behaves properly and well, he will gain more liberty in the future. Sebastien warns Akakios that they are not permitted to take any resources from the covenant -- specifically including any books, vis, or enchanted items -- but they may use the non-sanctum living spaces, so long as they do no damage.
In his explorations, Akakios can see that there is both a mundane and Hermetic library in the covenant, the latter of which Sebastien tells him is protected with various wards. Akakios's free time is mostly when Sebastien sleeps; otherwise, he is in the constant company of his master. For his part, Akakios is a capable and surprisingly useful assistant.
With his trained sense for trouble Awareness and his skill at escaping notice Stealth , he avoids tripping traps when Sebastien is busy elsewhere. Far more important are his Premonitions, which allow him to -- more than once -- cue his dominus in to hidden wards and deadly security measures which might have burned them alive, chopped them to bits, or wiped their memories. Sebastien might have found these dangers on his own, but thanks to Akakios, he did not need to, which earns a wry smile from the otherwise-serious Tytalus.
As they take their last meal on the roof of one of the sanctum towers, Sebastien praises his apprentice. There's something I want you to know.
You have probably always presumed that Tomas was my first apprentice, and you were an afterthought. But it is time you know the truth: the records will show that you were always my first choice. Tomas is a strange, doomed soul, more Faerie than man and fated to die. I chose him to give you a rival, to give you someone to hate, to bring out your competitive instinct. And, perhaps, to give his sad and brief little life some meaning.
Things are going to be different between us from now on. He doesn't trust the magi of Rome to take care of the matter. However, he is bound to teach Rene for one season of the year, and this requires him to remain in the Alps. So, instead, he charges the Redcaps to spread word of the March against Grigori, and he sends a great many letters to his fellow Hoplites throughout the Order, enjoining them to hunt this diabolist down and kill him before he does any more harm.
Meanwhile, Rene is instructed in the basics of Ignem magic. This is not Hugh's specialty, but he can see that Rene is interested in it, and a Flambeau who can't cast an Ignem spell is unusual indeed. But Rene learns about all that Hugh knows in a few months. During their sessions, Hugh outlines the weakness of fire magic: spells which use fire to attack usually have to penetrate Magic Resistance, something Rene has already encountered.
If a spell does not need to penetrate Magic Resistance, it needs to be aimed, which is often difficult. Instead, Hugh relies on mundane weaponry for offense, while using magic to defend himself and to augment his strength, stamina, and size. In this type of fighting, which is known as the School of Ramius, it is important that the weapon itself is not magical -- this allows it to ignore Magic Resistance.
Rene can expect to get training in Terram and Corpus before he learns any more Ignem and, even then, he'll have to do it from a book. With the Tribunal behind him, Kentigern can turn to his duties as a dominus, and he spends the Winter in personal instruction with Gustov, teaching him Animal. Kentigern is a solemn master who takes his work very seriously; he has little patience when Gustov is easily distracted. However, he knows this Art very well and Gustov learns much, finding he has a natural talent for it.
Shadow of the Moon Kynthia and Cassidy return to the covenant, and Cassidy begins her training in Hermetic magic. Kynthia has detected Cassidy's natural talent for illusion magic, and so she begins with Imaginem.
Cassidy is still too young to be trusted with a casting token -- the ring which would allow her to cast spells inside the covenant -- so she instead practices with the cantations she already knows, or in occasional trips outside the covenant.
The slopes of this mountain -- the highest in Mythic Europe -- are one of the most magical places in the known world, and it is easy to find adventure there. Kynthia accompanies Cassidy in all these trips, however, as the magical beings which hide on the slopes of Mont Blanc are far too dangerous for a mere apprentice.
Meanwhile, Breandan spends a few weeks crossing the Alps and, with his Tremere guardians, making his way to Coeris, the heart of House Tremere. The two magi treat Breandan like a servant, in great contrast to Diana. This is not to say they mistreat him, they just ignore him unless it is to give an order. He carries his fair share of the load and the men keep a good pace, rising early, hiking for long hours and eating while walking.
Breandan performs modestly well during this time; while he is not as strong, as tireless, or as experienced an outdoorsman as the two Tremere, he is not without stamina and athletic skill. The other magi do have to pause to let Breandan rest, but they don't seem to begrudge doing so.
By their attitudes, Breandan can deduce they seem to approve of his current level of physical ability while still expecting more in the end. Once he reaches Coeris, Breandan is introduced to Horatius, the House's Secretary of Operations, and also to Hylas of Tremere, a mature Carthaginian magus who supervises the apprentices. Hylas is tall, lean, black, and shaves his head but maintains a trim mustache. Over the year that follows, Breandan comes to know Hylas's ways well.
Horatius, a middle-aged and slightly rotund magus, treats Breandan's record at the MidSummer Fair as the last gasp of a willful child, something which is understandable and was excusable but which must now end. He explains the House philosophy in a matter-of-fact way that makes it sound like unassailable truth: other magi waste their time, energy, and resources competing with one another or duplicating each other's efforts. Tremere cooperate, streamline their efficiency, and train specialist magi for every eventuality.
Other Houses are fractious; Tremere are united under a clear command structure. Younger magi do as they are told, led by senior magi who have the benefit of both experience and wisdom. It is common for apprentices in the border Tribunals to forget these lessons, and that is precisely why they are brought back here, to Coeris, where they can be reminded of them. This is Breandan's task.
Then he landed and transformed back. His voice sounded pretty much the same as Harry's Hermione absently told him to watch his language, still staring at the boy. What on earth had happened? The boy blinked back at them, then gasped, facepalming. It was a mark of how shocked Hermione was that she did not even think to reprimand him. But for the last couple of days I've been going out into the Forbidden Forest to work on my form in the real world. Hermione muttered that crack-brained boys who continually sneak out after curfew should be given detention, while Ron simply looked at Harry as if he were mental.
Harry just went on. So I flashed to the Hospital Wing and grabbed some potions. Why the heck did Harry always try to deal with things on his own! But Harry was shaking his head. What do you think the Minister for Magic would say to that? Hermione sighed. You could have gotten Madame Pomphrey; her Healer's Oath would keep her from telling anyone your secret.
It's really dangerous to try to heal severe wounds if you're not a healer. Ron muttered something about the greasy git deserving it, and Hermione reached out a hand to smack the back of his head. But what if someone saw you? I had to obliviate her when I left, though. Hermione winced. I think Bellatrix had a go at him. Ron shuddered. Hermione, suddenly sat up straight as she realized what must have happened. Which was, evidently, what he had done, as Snape had looked as fine and snarky as ever the next morning.
I would recommend it, but I know you don't read. That had not been what she meant. Healed everything. It also burned away his Dark Mark for some reason. Hermione blinked, trying to remember where she'd heard about something like that before. It was some old book I think I read about something like that somewhere.
Then her hand suddenly flew to her mouth, and she gave a little 'oh! Your scar is gone, and if what I think happened I think. On Snape?! Hermione was shaking slightly as she realized how close Harry had been to death. I have to go get my copy of Oldest Rituals. She wasn't even completely out of her seat before the book popped up on the coffee table next to the half-empty tray of cookies. It is mentioned to the praise of that excellent person Abraham, that he com- manded his children " and household after him to keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judgment?
As to matter of fact, it can scarce be denied, that no small part of the notions men have of right and wrong, and of what is blameable and praise- worthy, comes by education and custom, by tradition and instruction. And the vulgar almost every where adopt that scheme of religion and morals, which prevails in their respective countries. That great statesman and moralist PufFendorf, who was remarkable for his knowledge of the law of nature and of mankind, ascribes " the facility which children and ignorant people have in determining between just and unjust, right and wrong, to the habitude which m Gen.
Barbeyrac, in his notes upon it, after having observed that " there is a manifest proportion between the maxims of natural law, and the dictates of right reason; so that it is perceived by the most simple people from the moment they are proposed to them, and that they attend and examine them;" adds, that "per- haps they could never have discovered them of themselves, and cannot always comprehend the reasons of them, or distinctly explain what they perceive concerning them; and that though no man who is arrived at the age of discretion can reasonably pretend to excuse himself as to this matter by invincible ignorance, yet it is nevertheless true, that education, instruction, and example, arc the ordinary canals by which these ideas enter into the minds of men: without this, the greater part of mankind would either almost en- tirely extinguish their natural light, or would never give the least attention to them.
Experience shews this but too plainly. Many things there are among savage people, and even among the most civilized nations, sufficient to justify this melancholy and mortifying truth. From whence saith he it ought to be concluded, that every man should use his best endeavours to contribute, as far as is in his power, to instruct others in their duty, to establish, strengthen, and o De Jur.
But it is, in a particular manner, incumbent upon parents, masters of families, legislators and magistrates, the ministers of reli- gion, and those who profess to instruct men in the science of morals. And such instructions properly given are, no doubt, of great advantage, and what we ought to be very thankful for. But it is manifest from experience, that mere- ly human instruction cannot be absolutely depended upon: and that men have been often led into wrong notions of morality, in very important instances, by those who ought to have instructed them better.
I would therefore observe farther, that besides the se- veral ways which have been mentioned, whereby men come to the knowledge of moral duty, there is great need of a Divine Revelation, in order to the setting their duty before them in its just extent, and enforcing it upon them by the highest authority. See Barbeyrac's Puffendorf, torn. The law given to the peo- ple of Israel was designed toins-tiucl and direct them in morals, as well as ia the knowledge and worship ot the one true God.
A great deal was done ia the methods of Divine Providence, to preserve the sense and knowledge oC morals among the heathen nations; but they did not make aright use of the helps afforded them.
IT has been shewn, in the former part of this work, that as the first man was formed in an adult state, and placed in a world ready prepared, and amply provided for his re- ception and entertainment, so there is great reason to think, that God communicated to him the knowledge of religion, in its main fundamental articles, especially relating to the existence and perfections of the Deity, and the crea- tion of the world, that he might be in an immediate capa- city of serving his Maker, and answering the great end of his being.
And one of the first and most natural enquiries, when he was made acquainted with the existence of a God of infinite perfections, his Creator and Sovereign Lord, must have been what God would have him to do, and what was the duty required of him, in order to secure the Divine Favour and Approbation.
For it cannot rea- sonably be supposed, that he was left absolutely to himself, and to his own will, to act as he thought fit, without any higher direction or law to govern him. He could have no human instructor to teach, or to advise him: he had no pa- rents or progenitors, whose knowledge and experience might have been of use to him; and as he had no expe- perience of his own, it is not probable that, in his circum- Chap.
We may therefore justly suppose, that a wise and good God, who designed him to be governed by a law, gave him a law by which he should be governed, and communicated his will to him in relation to the duty required of him.
He was imme- diately endued with the gift of language, which necessarily supposes that he was furnished with a stock of ideas; a specimen of which he gave in giving names to the inferior animals, which were brought before him for that purpose.
The same gift of lianguage was imparted to the consort provided for him; and they both were admitted in several instances to a near intercourse with their Maker, and were immediately favoured with notions of several things which it concerned them to know. It pleased God to acquaint ihem with the dominion he had invested them with over the several creatures in this lovver world: they had a di- vine allowance and directions as to the food it was proper for them to eat: they were instructed that they were to be the parents of a numerous offspring, and that they were to replenish the earth.
The institution and law of marriage, which was given them, shews that they were made ac- quainted with the duties of the conjugal relation; with which are nearly connected the duties required of them as parents towards the children which should proceed from them, and the duties which their children should render to them, and to one another.
The precept and injunction which was laid upon them not to eat the forbidden fruit, compre- hended a considerable part of the moral law under it. It was designed to instruct them that they were not the abso- lute Lords of this lower world, but were under the do- minion of an higher Lord, to whom they owed the most entire subjection, and unreserved obedience, in an implicit resignation to his supreme wisdom and goodness: that they were bound to exercise a government over their appetites?
Upon the whole, we may justly conclude, that the first parents of the human race had the knowledge of God, and of the main articles of their duty divinely com- fnunicated to them, as far as was proper, and suited to the state and circumstances they were in r.
They were now to regard God as their offended Sovereign and Lord: discoveries were made to them both of his jus- tice and righteous displeasure against sin, and of his placa- bleness towai'ds penitent sinners, and his pardoning mercy; without an assurance of which they might have sunk under those desponding fears which a consciousness of their guilt was apt to inspire.
And as they stood in great need of a divine direc- tion in those circumstances, it is reasonable to think that he signified his will to them in relation to their future con- duct, and the religion required of fallen creatures. The history which Moses has given of the antediluvian world is very short: but in the account given of Cain and Abel it is plainly intimated, that there was in those early ages an intercourse between God and man, that he did not leave them without discoveries of his will, that a law had been given them with relation to the external worship of God, and particularly concerning the offering of sacrifice.
Accordingly they both observed it as an act of religion; but Abel, who was a better man, with a more pious disposi- tion than Cain. Jiim to the human race; and again to Noah, the second father of man- kind, and by him transmitted to his descendants.
What was said to Cain, and the curse inflicted upon him, supposed a divine law obliging to mu- tual love and benevolence, and of which the violence com- mitted on his brother was a manifest breach. There were in the old world preachers of righteousness, who, we have reason to think, declared the will and law of God to men, and urged it upon them in his name, and by his authority.
So Noah is called, 2 Pet. To which it may be added, that if God had not made express dis- coveries of his will to men, and given them laws bound upon them by his own Divine Authority, their guilt would not have been so highly aggravated as to draw down upon them so dreadful a ruin and condemnation.
But they sin- ned presumptuously, and with a high hand: they allowed themselves in an unrestrained indulgence of their lusts and appetites, and committed all sorts of violence, rapine, and wickedness, in the most manifest opposition to the divine law. They seem to have fallen into an atheistical neglect and contempt of all religion; and therefore are justly called s The reader may compare what is here said with the first chapter of the former volume, in which several of the things Jiere mentioned are more fully insisted upon; but it was necessary to take some notice of them in this place, to show that God from the beginning made discoveries of his will to men concerning their duty.
And the pro- phecy of Enoch, mentioned by St. Jude, seems particularly to charge them with the most audacious profaneness, and open contempt of Religion, both in their words and actions, for which the divine judgments were denounced against them. Noah, with his family, who survived that destruction, was no doubt well acquainted with those divine laws, for the transgression of which the sinners of the old world were so severely punishedj and a man of his excellent character, we may be sure, took care to transmit them to his children and descendants: and the awful proofs of the divine justice and displeasure against the wicked and disobedient, tended to give the instructions and admoni- tions delivered to them by this preacher of righteousness a peculiar force.
It appears from the brief hints given by Moses, that God made renewed discoveries of his will after the flood to this second father of mankind, and gave laws and injunctions which were designed to be obligatory on the whole human race.
The tradition of the Jews relating to the precepts delivered to the sons of Noah is well known. And though we have not sufficient proof, that they were precisely in number or order what they pretend, yet that the substance of those precepts was then given and promulgated to mankind by Divine Authority, there is good reason to believe. And consider- ing the narrowness of the Jewish notions, their strong prejudices against the Gentiles, and the contempt they had for them, this tradition of theirs deserves a particular regard.
The moral laws which were afterwards published to the people of Israel, a summary of which is contained in the ten com- mandments, were in substance known before in the patriarch- al times. And these divine injunctions, which were regarded as having been given by God to men, and enforced by a Divine Authority, may justly be supposed to be referred to in that remarkable passage.
Agree- ably to this determination, Maimonides positively asserts, that the pious among the Gentiles have a portion in the world to come, De Poenit. See also Geniar. Babylon, ad titul. Aboda Zara, cap. Menasseh Ben Israel de Resur. These, with other testimonies, are cited by Sel- den de Jure Nat. Selden explains it, " inter primaries Ebraeorum, quantum ad prsenaium attinet? After the deluge, it is probable that the heads and lead- ers of the dispersion, carried with them some of the main principles, both of religion and law, into the several places where they respectively settled: from whoih they were transmitted to their descendants.
For in those early ages, as Plato observes in the beginning of his third book of laws, the people were wont to follow the laws and customs of their parents and ancestors, and of the most antient men among them.
It strengthens this, when it is considered, that the most important moral maxims were delivered in the earliest times, not in a way of reasoning, as they were afterwards by the moralists in the ages of learning and phi- losophy, but in a way of ' authority, as principles derived from the antients, and which were regarded as of a divine u Grotius mentions some institutions and customs common to all men, and which cannot be so properly ascribed to an in- stinct of nature, or the evident conclusions of reason, as to a perpe- tual and almost uninterrupted tradition from the first ages, such as the slaying and otfering up of sacrifices, the pudor circa res vene- reas, the solemnities of marriage, the abhhorrence of inces uous copulations.
De Verit. Christ, lib. See also De Jur. And Mr. Le Cierc, though fond of the hypothesis, that many of the Mosaic rites were instituted in imitation of those of the Egyptians, yet, speak- ing of the offering of the first-fruits to God, which was in use both among the Egyptians and Hebrews, says, that it was not derived from the one of these nations to the oiher, but came to both from the earliest ages, and probably was originally of di- vine appointment.
See Cleric. It was a notion which generally obtained among the Heathens, that the original law was from God, and that it derived its obliging force from a Divine Authority.
It is probable that this notion was owing not only to the belief which obtained among them of a divine superintending providence, but to the traditionary accounts they had of God's having given laws to the first men in the most antient times.
And so strongly was a sense of this impressed upon the minds of the people, that it belong- ed to the Divinity to give laws to mankind, that the most antient legislators, in order to give their laws a proper weight and authority, found it necessary to persuade them that these laws were not merely of their own contriving, but were what they had received from the gods.
And it is probable, that they took some of the chief heads of moral law, which had been handed down by antient tradition, into the laws of their respective states and civil communities, especially as far as they tended to the preservation of the public order and good of the society.
And from thence the legislators. This is observable concerning the antient wise men among the Persians, Babylonians, Bactrians, Indians, Egyptians. It appears from the account which hath been given, that a great deal had been done, in the course of the Divine Providence, for leading men into the knowledge of their duty. God had given laws to mankind from the beginning, and made express discoveries of his will to the first pa- rents and ancestors of the human race, concerning the prin- cipal points of duty required of them.
They were bound by his authority, and by all manner of obligations, to transmit the knowledge of them to their descendants. And this was the more easily done, as they were agreeable to the best moral sentiments of the human heart, and to the dictates of reason, which, if duly exercised, might see them to be con- formable to the nature and relations of things. And accordingly, the bulk of mankind, in all ages and nations, have still retained such notions of good and evil, as have laid a foundation for the approbation and disapprobation of their own minds and consciences.
Taking all these things together, the laws and precepts originally given by Divine Revelation, the remains of which continued long among the Gentiles, the moral sense of things implanted in the human heart, and the dic- tiquity: particularly from Pung, who lived near a thousand years before him, and who also professed to follow the doctrine of the anlients; and especially from Tao and Xun, two eminent Chinese legislators, who, according to the Chinese chronology, lived above years before Confucius.
Or, if we should sup- pose their chronology not to be exact, yet still it would follow, that the knowledge of morals was derived from the earjiest ages, when philosophy and sciences had made but small progress. And undoubtedly there were eminent z St. Paul represents the Gentiles as having the " work of the law written in their hearts. It is not designed to signify, as some have understood it, that all mankind have the whole law of God, comprehending every part of moral duty, written in plain characters upon their hearts: for this would prove that all men have naturally a clear knowledge of the whole of their duty without instruction: which is contrary to the most evident fact and experience, and to what the apostle elsewhere observes concerning the Gentiles.
But though this could not be his meaning in this manner of expression, yet it certainly signi- fies, that the Gentiles, who had not the written law in their hands, were not left entirely destitute of a law. And when in any instances, they did some of the things contained in the law for they were far from doing all things therein contained, as the apostle proves they shewed that in those instances they had the work of the law written in their hearts; i.
This is evidently the apos- tle's intention in this passage. And it must be acknowledged, that there were scarce any of the Heathens, even in times of their greatest degeneracy, but had in some respects the work of the law written in their hearts, i.
In Greece and Rome, in their best times, there seem to have been some hereditary notions, derived from their ancestors, and cherished and confirmed by edu- cation and custom, of what is virtuous, honourable, and praiseworthy, and the contrary; which had a great effect upon their conduct.
But, after all, it cannot be denied, thaf the notions of morality among them and the other Pagans, were in many respects greatly defective, and depraved with corrupt mixtures. As they fell from the right knowledge of the one true God, which, as a learned author a , who is a warm advo- cate for the Morality of the Pagans, observes, is " the great foundation of morality," they fell also from a just know- ledge of moral duty iTh very important instances.
Idolatry not only introduced a great corruption into the worship of God, and all that part of duty which immediately relateth to the Supreme Beifig, but also into their moral conduct in other respects. Especially, when the worship of hero deities of them far clearer and of greater extent than in others, and in all of them vastly short of what weenjoy, who have the benefit of the Christian Revelation.
The apostle, speaking of the Gen- tiles at the time of the publication of the Gospel, represents them as amazingly corrupted, even in their moral notions of things. He gives it as their general character, that they " had their understandings darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that was in them, because of the blindness of their hearts. And in many places their civil laws, though they were of use to their morals in several instances, yet led them astray in others.
When idolatry and polytheism began to spread generally among the nations, it pleased God to select a peculiar peo- ple, among whom a polity was erected of an extraordinary kind; the fundamental principle of which was the knowledge and worship of the one true God, and him only, in opposi- tion to all idolatry.
He also gave them a code of holy and excellent laws, containing the main articles of the duty which God requires of men, in plain and express precepts. The moral laws obligatory on all mankind were summarily comprehended in the Ten Commandments, which were promulgated by God himself with a most amazing solemnity at mount Sinai, and written in the two tables of stone, to be a standing law to that people. They were not left to them- selves, to work out a system of moral duty merely by their own reason.
Even such things as seemed most plain to the common sense of mankind, as the precepts prescribing the honouring our parents, and forbidding to kill, steal, and commit adultery, were bound upon them by express laws from God himself, and enforced by his own Divine Autho- rity.
And he commanded them to be very assiduous and diligent in teaching those laws to their children, and in- structing them in the particulars of the duty which God Chap. And it is very probable, that the fame of their laws, and the glorious proofs of a Divine Autho- rity bywhich they were enforced, was spread abroad among the nations.
This might be true in several instances, though he is mistaken in those he par- ticularly mentions. Many learned men have observed a great affinity between some of the laws enacted in Athens and other states, and those of Moses, who published his laws before the most antient legislators that we know of published theirs. And there is good reason to believe, that the Mosaic laws were the first laws that were ever commit- ted to writing.
Evangel, lib. Part IL But though it is probable the laws given by Moses, in the name of God himself, were of advantage, in many in- stances, to preserve the sense and knowledge of moral duty among the nations, yet as those laws were in a special man- ner delivered to one particular nation, who were for wise ends kept separate by some peculiar usages from other peo- ple, they were not so well fitted for universal use.
It pleased God, therefore, at the time which seemed most fit to his infinite wisdom, in compassion to the wretched state of mankind, after having exercised long patience and forbear- ance towards them, to make a new Revelation of his Will, which was commanded to be published to all nations, in which their duty is set before them in its just extent, en- forced by God's own express authority, and by such argu- ments and motives, as are most proper to work upon the mind.
This Revelation and system of Divine Laws is brought us by the most illustrious messenger that could be sent for that purpose, the Son of God in human flesh. His Divine Mission was confirmed by the most convincing attestations; and he hath also exemplified to us the Divine Law in all its purity and excellency, in his own Sacred Life and Practice, and hath provided the most gracious assist- ances to help our infirmities, that we may be the better en- abled to perform the duties required of us.
And what great need the world stood in of such a Revelation, and conse- quently how thankful we should be for so great a blessing, is what I now proceed distinctly to shew. A particular enquiry into the state of morality in the Heathen -world.
A ooHi- plete rule of morals, taken ia its just extent, comprehends the duties relating to God, our neighbours, and ourselves. If the Heathens had Such a rale among them, it would appear either in the precepts of their religion, or in the pre- scriptions of their civil laws, or customs which have the force of laws, or in the doctrines and instructions of their philosophers and moralists.
It is projiosed distinctly to consider each of these. As to the civil laws and constitutions, supposing them to have been never so proper for civil government, they were not fitted to he an adequant rule of morals.
That cannot be said to be an adequant Voh. If the Heathens had among them a complete and settled rule of moral duty in its just ifXtent, it must be found either in the precepts of their religion, and instructions of its ministers, or in the prescriptions of the civil laws and the institutions of the magistrates, or in customs that had the force of laws, or lastly, in the doctrines and maxims of their philosophers ana moralists.
Religion, when it is of the right kind, and considered in its most comprehensive notion, takes in the whole of moral duty, as necessarily belonging to it, and both prescribes it in its just extent, and enforces it by the highest authority, that of God himself, and by the most important motives. But in this the Heathen religion was very defective. There were indeed some general principles of religion, which were in some measure preserved among the Pagan nations, and neVer were entirely extinguished, relating to the exist- ence and attributes of the Deity, and to a Providence ex- ercising an inspection over human actions and affairs, and rewarding the virtuous and punishing the wicked.
The no- tions of these things, though attended with much obscurity, and perverted and debased with many corrupt mixtures, yet had a good effect in lajing restraints upon vice and wickedness, and encouraging virtue, and keeping up the face Chap. But what passed for religion among the Pagans and was esta- blished by their laws, and administered by their priests, neither taught any scheme of doctrines necessary to be be- lieved, nor held forth a code of laws or rule of moral duty for regulating and directing the practice.
It consisted pro- perly in the public rites and ceremonies to be observed in the worship of their deities. Locke observes made itnottheirijusiness toteach men virtue e. It is true, that Cicero, in his Oratio prodomo sua ad Pontifices, represents them as having a general in- spectio!? For in the Roman government, the same persons acted in both capacities, and the priesthood was so mo- delled as to answer the civil and political views of the com- monwealth.
It is a just observation of the Baron Puffendorf, that " what the Romans called Religion was chiefly insti- e To the same purpose Lactantius observes, that those who taught the worship of the gods, gave no directions as to what related to the regulation of men's manners, and to the conduct of life.
In- stit. See also Augustin. Dei, lib. But no farther regard was had to their morals, than as the interest of the state was concerned. So far was the Heathen religion, and the wor- ship of their deities, from giving men a right notion of xnorality, or engaging them to the practice of it, that in many instances the rites made use of in the worship of their gods were of an immoral nature, and instead of pro- moting the practice of virtue, had a tendency to encou- rage vice and licentiousness.
This sufficiently appears from the instances produced in the former volume, chap. History of Religion, p. Legation of Moses, vol. Many have spoke with admiration of the civil laws and constitutions, which were in force among the Pagan na- tions, as if they were sufficient to direct and regulate their moral conduct.
Some of the most eminent of the antient philosophers seem to resolve the whole duty of a good man into obedience to the laws of his country. Socrates de- fines the just tnan to be one that obeys the laws of the re- public, and that he becomes unjust by transgressing them i. And many passages might be produced to shew, that both he and Plato, and the philosophers in general, urged it as the duty of the citizens to make the laws of their country the rule of their practice, both in religious and civil matters.
It cannot be denied, that there Qi Hume's Nat. Ar Ibid. Part II. A man may obey those laws, and yet be far from being fuly virtuous: he may not be obnoxious to the penalties of those laws, and yet be a vicious and bad man. Nor indeed is it the proper design of those laws to render men really and inwardly virtuous, but so to govern their outward be- haviour, as to maintain public order. The highest end they propose is the temporal welfare and prosperity of the state.
The heart, the proper seat of virtue and vice, is not within the cognizance of civil laws and human governments. Nor can the sanctions of those laws, or any rewards and pu- nishments which the ablest human legislators can contrive, be ever applied to enforce the whole of moral duty.
They cannot reach to the inward temper, or the secret affections aid dispositions of the soul, and intentions of the will, on vhich yet the morality of human actions, or their being good and evil in the sight of God, does principally depend. Seneca says very well, that " it is a narrow notion of inno- cence to measure a man's goodness only by the law. Of how much larger extent is the rule of duty or of good cffices, than that of legal right?
How many things are there vhich piety, humanity, liberality, justice, fidelity require, vhich yet are not within the compass of the public statutes? Quanto latius officiorum patet quam juris regula? Quam This also is the scheme of the author of the book De TEsprit, who makes the law of the state to be the only rule and measure of virtue and duty, and what he calls a good legislation to be the only means of promoting it.
Chap, III. Civil Laws no adequate Rules of Morals, 39 multa pietas, humanitas, liberalitas, justitia, fides exigunt, quse omnia extra publicas tabulas sunt m?May 03, · 50+ videos Play all Mix - Nox Aeterna - First Encounter With Obscurity YouTube Nox Aeterna - Einarr's Remembrance - Duration: OfficialNoxAeterna viewsMissing: Wolfsense.