Thursday 4 June Friday 5 June Saturday 6 June Sunday 7 June Monday 8 June Tuesday 9 June Monday 15 June Tuesday 16 June Wednesday 17 June Friday 19 June Saturday 20 June Sunday 21 June Monday 22 June Tuesday 23 June Wednesday 24 June Thursday 25 June Friday 26 June Saturday 27 June Sunday 28 June Monday 29 June Tuesday 30 June Wednesday 1 July Thursday 2 July Friday 3 July Saturday 4 July Sunday 5 July Monday 6 July Tuesday 7 July Wednesday 8 July Thursday 9 July Friday 10 July Saturday 11 July Sunday 12 July Monday 13 July Tuesday 14 July Wednesday 15 July Thursday 16 July Friday 17 July Saturday 18 July Sunday 19 July Monday 20 July Tuesday 21 July At this time available experimental data on all aspects of fast neutron reactions and fission is extremely limited and imprecise.
Theoretical techniques are also rudimentary. He builds an experimental pile in the Stagg Field squash courts with a projected k value of 0.
Fermi's efforts now shifts from demonstrating feasibility to securing graphite and uranium of adequate purity and in sufficient quantity to build the reactor.
April Glenn Seaborg arrives in Chicago and starts work on developing an industrial-scale plutonium separation and purification process. Percival Keith of the Kellogg Co. May 18, Gregory Breit, who has been coordinating physics research on fast neutron phenomena, quits, leaving the neutron physics effort without leadership.
Compton asks J. Robert Oppenheimer to take over in his place. May 19, Robert Oppenheimer writes Ernest O. Lawrence that the atomic bomb problem was solved in principle and that six good physicists should have the details mostly worked out in six months.
His optimism is based on the belief that gun assembly would suffice for both uranium and plutonium. May 23, S-1 program leaders discuss priorities. He argues that redundant development will reduce the time to successful production to the shortest possible time, regardless of cost.
June J. Robert Oppenheimer leads an effort on fast neutron physics, and prepares an outline for the entire neutron physics program.
Production of plutonium through marathon irradiation by cyclotron begins. Chicago Met Lab engineering council begins developing plans for large scale plutonium production reactors. June 18, Due to continuing and increasing organizational problems, Col. James Marshall is ordered by Brig. Wilhelm Styer to organize a U. Army Corps of Engineers District to take over and consolidate atomic bomb development.
July to September, Oppenheimer assembles theoretical study group in Berkeley to examine the principles of bomb design. Included are J. During the summer the group develops the principles of atomic bomb design, and examines the feasibility of fusion bombs. Oppenheimer emerges as a natural leader. The group estimates the mass of U required for a high yield detonation at 30 kg estimated at Kt , megaton range fusion bombs are also considered highly likely.
During this period Richard C. Tolman and Robert Serber discuss the idea of using explosives to collapse a shell of fissile material in place of the gun assembly method. Serber reports that they co-authored a short paper on the subject, although this paper has not been found.
At this time Enrico Fermi and his staff are busy arranging for the materials required for Chicago Pile 1. July 27, First shipment of irradiated uranium arrives at the Chicago Met Lab lb. Mid-August Enrico Fermi's group demonstrates an experimental pile with a projected k value of close to 1.
Achieving a chain reaction is now certain. August 13, The Manhattan Engineer District is formally established. August 20, Glenn Seaborg isolates pure plutonium through a separation process suitable for industrial scale use.
August 29, A status report by James B. Conant is relayed to the Secretary of War by Vannevar Bush indicating the very positive results of Oppenheimer's group.
Bush adds his concerns about the organization and leadership of the project, requesting new leadership be appointed. May 15, President Franklin D. Lawrence's cyclotrons to separate uranium isotopes in Tennessee. Leslie Groves is notified at a. Brehon Somervell that his assignment overseas has been cancelled and that he will take another assignment - command of the Manhattan Engineer District. He buys Site X, 52, acres of land on the Clinch River. Preliminary construction work begins soon after.
Leslie Groves' insistence the Manhattan Project is granted approval by the War Production Board to use the highest emergency procurement priority in existence AAA when needed. Leslie Groves is promoted to Brigadier General.
Robert Oppenheimer proposes that a "fast-neutron lab" to study fast neutron physics and develop designs for an atomic bomb be created. The idea at this point is for the lab to be a small research institution that would not be involved in the engineering and production of nuclear weapons. Leslie Groves puts DuPont in charge of the plutonium production project. Bush passes this recommendation to President Roosevelt. As a result the US loses access to British work in gaseous diffusion, which seriously delays successful plant completion.
Robert Oppenheimer. He orders key engineering decisions for plutonium production, under debate for months, be made in 5 days. Leslie Groves asks J. Robert Oppenheimer to head Project Y, planned to be the new central laboratory for weapon physics research and design.
Robert Oppenheimer's appointment in meeting with Oppenheimer and Gen. Leslie Groves. This issue caused major concern with many project leaders, including Leslie Groves and James B. Conant, not only due to its own significance, but because it raised apprehension about the impact of other unexplored phenomena. This issue later became moot due to the problems with Pu contamination. Later in the month the Lewis Committee is formed to review progress and make recommendations.
Robert Oppenheimer is selected as laboratory director. On the strength of the Lewis Committee's recommendation, gaseous diffusion is chosen as the principal enrichment approach. Kellex Corporation, a subsidiary of Kellog is created to build a plant, Percival Keith is put in charge. Contracts are put in place, and hiring begins for plant construction. Kellex immediately begins work on a process for producing usable barrier material on an industrial scale. Roosevelt approves the expenditure.
It contains Construction is halted sooner than planned when Fermi projects that a critical configuration has been reached. It demonstrates a k value of 1. This is the first sustained nuclear fission chain-reaction with the Chicago Pile-1 CP Sundt Company is appointed contractor to build Los Alamos Laboratory in a handshake deal. Sundt begins construction immediately, without plans or blueprints in order to finish as quickly as possible. The program was extremely limited throughout the war and included no more than fifty personnel.
From this point on the site grows non-stop through the end of the war. Robert Oppenheimer about using explosives to collapse a shell into a critical mass. This is the earliest surviving reference to the idea of implosion although this term was not used.
It is already apparent that the original construction program is inadequate to meet needs. These include indoctrination lectures by Robert Serber later published as The Los Alamos Primer on April 5, 7, 9, 12, and 14; and meetings to plan the laboratory's work from April 15 through May 6. The laboratory's initial organization and leadership is worked out. Teller is soon placed in charge of lower priority research on fusion weapons. This greatly expanded the scope of work undertaken at the laboratory to engineering development, and eventually acting as prime contractor for weapon production, and manufacturer of key weapon components including all nuclear components, and the implosion system.
Also, construction begins on plant for manufacturing gaseous diffusion barriers in Decatur, IL although no barrier materials of usable quality have yet been produced. This contract back dated to Jan.
This is well within the assembly speed capability of a high speed gun. Construction staff at Oak Ridge, TN now exceeds 20, Also, construction begins on the cooling systems for the production reactors at Hanford, WA. Construction staff is about 5, The focus at this point is on developing a high velocity gun for plutonium since a uranium gun would be much easier to make. This is a clear advantage for the technique which would make a bomb more efficient, and require a smaller critical mass. Edward Teller and Hans Bethe begin investigating the subject theoretically, J.
Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie Groves become very interested in its potential, and efforts to accelerate the program begin. John von Neumann agrees to work on the physics of implosion in his spare time. If it weren't for Dr. Oppenheimer's creation, for example, would we have ever heard lines like "Nuclear baby, don't fission out on me!
There are various subgenres see below that comprise the master genre we like to call the Atomic Platter, but mainly these compositions celebrate, lament or lampoon the Bomb and the Cold War that sprang from the mushroom clouds over Japan. The earlier songs are less self-conscious, more naive in some cases to the point of downright wackiness and therefore more intriguing. The term is used by some science fiction fans to describe not only the era following the conclusion of the Second World War but also contemporary history up to the present day.
The nuclear power industry has improved the safety and performance of reactors, and has proposed new safer but generally untested reactor designs but there is no guarantee that the reactors will be designed, built and operated correctly.
In September , Japan announced that it would completely phase out nuclear power by , although under the Abe administration this is now unlikely, with Germany, and other countries in reaction to the accident at Fukushima. A large anti-nuclear demonstration was held on May 6, , in Washington D. On June 12, , one million people demonstrated in New York City's Central Park against nuclear weapons and for an end to the cold war arms race.
It was the largest anti-nuclear protest and the largest political demonstration in American history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of history —. This article is about the historical era.
For the comic-book miniseries, see Atomic Age comics. By technological eras. By historical regions. By type of technology. History of agriculture History of biotechnology History of communication History of computer hardware History of electrical engineering History of manufacturing History of materials science History of measurement History of medicine History of nuclear technology History of transport.
Technology timelines. Timeline of historic inventions Complete list by category. Article indices. Outline of technology Outline of prehistoric technology. Further information: Atomic Age design. Argonne National Laboratory, — University of Illinois Press. Sovacool Hoffman The atom consists of a nucleus and one or more electrons.
All atomic reactions involve changing one atom into another by changing the nucleus. Historically atomic power is an older term, and nuclear power is newer. The New York Times. New York Daily News. Laurence, the only journalist the U. Nagasaki, Laurence launched his Times series, where he extolled the bomb and sought to discredit other accounts about effects of the bomb. Each protium atom has one proton and no neutrons. When people talk about "hydrogen", this is the isotope of the element usually being discussed.
Deuterium is a naturally occurring isotope of element atomic number 1 that has one proton and also one neutron. Since the number of protons and neutrons is the same, you might think this would be the most abundant form of the element, but it's relatively rare.The Legendary Pink Dots - Malachai (Shadow Weaver Part 2) (CD, Album) Label: Play It Again Sam Records, Play It Again Sam Records Cat#: BIAS CD,